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IXL Math On IXL, math is more than just numbers. With unlimited questions, engaging item types, and real-world scenarios, IXL helps learners experience math at its most mesmerizing! Pre-K skills Represent numbers - up to 5 Inside and outside Classify shapes by color Long and short Wide and narrow See all 77 pre-K skills Kindergarten skills Fewer, more, and same Read clocks and write times Seasons Count money - pennies through dimes Shapes of everyday objects I See all 182 kindergarten skills First-grade skills Counting tens and ones - up to 99 Hundred chart Subtraction facts - numbers up to 10 Read a thermometer Measure using an inch ruler See all 210 first-grade skills Second-grade skills Counting patterns - up to 1,000 Greatest and least - word problems - up to 1,000 Compare clocks Create pictographs II Which customary unit of volume is appropriate? 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1. Arti Kata Geometri

Geometri berasal dari bahasa Yunani Kuno: γεωμετρία, "geo-" yang artinya bumi, dan "-metron" yang artinya pengukuran. Sehingga berdasarkan asal katanya geometri ialah ilmu ukur bumi. Seorang ahli matematika yang bekerja di bidang geometri disebut ahli ilmu ukur.

2. Perkembangan Ilmu Geometri

Geometri merupakan cabang matematika yang berkaitan dengan bentuk, ukuran, posisi dan sifat ruang (Wikepedia). Pada mulanya Geometri muncul sebagai ilmu yang berdiri sendiri tanpa ikut campur ilmu lain. Munculnya ilmu geometri sebagai ilmu pengetahuan praktis tentang panjang, luas, dan volume, karena pada saat itu manusia dituntut haruslah dapat melakukan ilmu ukur pada tanah-tanah mereka misalnya dalam kegunaan pertanian. Geometri dirintis pertama kali di Yunani oleh Thales (abad 6 SM). Dialah yang pertama menggunakan metode deduktif untuk membuktikan kebenaran pernyataan-pernyataan dalam geometri. Pada abad ke-3 SM oleh Euclides, Geometri dibangun berdasarkan seperangkat definisi, aksioma, dan pengertian-pengertian umum. Geometri Euclides sampai sekarang masih dipakai dan diajarkan, baik di sekolah maupun di perguruan tinggi. Contohnya segitiga dan segiempat.

3. Perkembangan Geometri dengan Ilmu Lain

Archimedes mengembangkan teknik cerdik untuk menghitung luas dan volume, dalam banyak cara mengantisipasi kalkulus integral yang modern. Pada Bidang astronomi, terutama pada pemetaan posisi bintang dan planet serta menggambarkan hubungan antara gerakan benda langit.

René Descartes memperkenalkan sistem koordinat Cartesius dan Aljabar yang semakin berkembang yang pertama kali ditemukan oleh Alkhwarizmi menandai tahap baru untuk geometri sehingga geometri dapat dinyatakan secara analitis dengan fungsi dan persamaan. Analitis geometri pada tingkat universitas itu dikenal dengan Geometri Analitik Bidang dan Geometri Analitik Ruang. Hal ini memainkan peran penting dalam munculnya Kalkulus di abad ke-17.

Selanjutnya, teori perspektif menunjukkan bahwa ada lebih banyak geometri dari sekedar sifat metrik angka: perspektif adalah asal geometri proyektif. Subyek geometri selanjutnya diperkaya oleh studi struktur intrinsik benda geometris yang berasal dari Euler dan Gauss sehingga menyebabkan munculnya topologi dan geometri diferensial.

Sejak penemuan abad ke-19 geometri non-Euclid, konsep ruang telah mengalami transformasi radikal, dan muncul pertanyaan: mana ruang geometris paling sesuai dengan ruang fisik? Dengan meningkatnya matematika formal dalam abad ke-20, ruang, titik, garis, dan bidang kehilangan isi intuitif, jadi hari ini kita harus membedakan antara ruang fisik, ruang geometris dan ruang abstrak.

Geometri modern memiliki ikatan yang kuat dengan beberapa fisika, dicontohkan oleh hubungan antara geometri pseudo-Riemann dan relativitas umum. Salah satu teori fisika termuda, teori string, juga sangat geometris dalam rasa. Sedangkan sifat visual geometri awalnya membuatnya lebih mudah diakses daripada bagian lain dari matematika, seperti aljabar atau Teori Bilangan, bahasa geometrik juga digunakan dalam konteks yang jauh dari tradisional, asal Euclidean-nya misalnya, dalam Geometri Fraktal dan Geometri Aljabar.


  1. Wikepedia
  2. Susilo, Frans. 2012. Landasan Matematika. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

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