Belajar Matematika Online

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Penulisan Kutipan dalam Karya Ilmiah

Kadang-kadang waktu membaca buku, proposal penelitian, skripsi karya ilmiah, dan lain-lain kita sering menemukan sebuah kutipan dalam teks. Misalnya : "Matematika adalah ilmu yang mempelajari blabla..." (Batauga, 2011 :17). Mengutip tulisan dari pengarang lain dibenarkan dalam skripsi atau tesis, tetapi hindari kutipan yang terlalu panjang. Fungsi mengutip pada penulisan skripsi atau karya ilmiah adalah sebagai acuan teoritik atau tinjauan pustaka sehingga pembaca bisa tahu mana pemikiran asli kita dan mana pemikiran dari sumber buku.

Mengapa harus ada kutipan dalam menulis buku, proposal penelitian, skripsi, dan karya ilmiah ? Alasannya adalah :
1. Tinggi nilai dan padat informasi.
2. Diambil untuk disetujui, diulas, atau ditolak.
3. Sebagai bahan diskusi
4. Menjelaskan kepada pembaca sumber informasi kita yang berhubungan dengan pembahasan.

Macam-Macam Kutipan

1. Kutipan langsung yaitu kutipan persis sama dengan teks aslinya.

2. Kutipan tak langsung yaitu kutipan tidak sama dengan teks aslinya yang merupakan pokok-pokok pikiran menurut jalan pemikiran penulis. Jika yang diutarakan pokok-pokok pikiran seorang penulis, maka tidak perlu ada kutipan langsung, cukup dengan menyebut sumbernya.

Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penulisan kutipan Langsung:

1. Kutipan harus asli dari sumbernya, tidak ada perubahan apapun.

2. Jika kutipannya singkat atau terdiri dari dua atau tiga kalimat saja (kurang dari 4 baris) masukkan ke dalam teks tulisan dan berspasi dua, serta ditulis di antara tanda (" ")
Contoh: "Menurut Jay dan Frederick C. Whitney (1988) komunikasi masa adalah sebuah proses dimana pesan-pesan yang diproduksi secara massal tidak sedikit itu disebarkan kepada penerima pesan yang luas, anonim, dan heterogen". (Nurudin, 2007: 12)

3. Jika kutipan dalam bentuk paragraf atau panjangnya 4 baris atau lebih maka ditulis dalam baris baru, digeser sedikit ke tengah dengan mengosongkan empat ketukan dari margin kiri, dan diketik spasi satu tanpa tanda kutip.

4. Kalau dalam kutipan perlu dihilangkan beberapa kalimat, maka bagian tersebut diberi tiga titik dengan setiap jarak titik diberi dua ketukan.
Contoh: ". . . Sistem bermedia sering disebut stimulus centered . . ."(Lapego, 1999 :133)

5. Kalau dalam kutipan panjang kurang dari 4 baris dan di dalam kutipan tersebut ada tanda kutip, maka tanda kutip itu dihilangkan diganti dengan tanda satu koma.

6. Jika kutipan terdapat bagian yang aneh atau dianggap salah dan penulis ingin memperbaikinya maka perbaikan itu harus berada dalam tanda kurung kurawal .

Penulisan Sumber Kutipan:

1. Pada akhir kutipan ditulis: (nama akhir pengarang, tahun terbit : halaman)
Contoh: (Hermawan, 2001 :20)

2. Apabila disebutkan nama pengarangnya dalam deretan kalimat yang dikutip, maka cukup ditulis tahun terbitnya dan halaman.
Contoh: Sebagaimana dikemukakan oleh Stenberg (1984: 41) bahwa “In Piaget’s theory, children’s intelectual functioning is represented in term of symbolic logic”.

3. Jika buku yang dikutif memiliki 2 pengarang cantumkan selalu nama akhir mereka. Jika nama dituliskan dalam teks, gabungkan kedua nama dengan kata "dan". Jika nama dituliskan dalam tanda kurung gabungkan nama dengan tanda "&".
Contoh :
Herman dan seligman (2008) berpendapat "Matematika adalah alat untuk memcahkan masalah"

"Persepsi sosial merupakan blabla..." (Becker & Seligman, 1981)

4. Jika buku yang dikutif memiliki tiga pengarang atau lebih, tuliskan nama akhir mereka secara lengkap pada kutipan pertama. Untuk kutipan berikutnya tuliskan nama akhir pengarang diikut ; dengan et al atau dkk.
Contoh :
Wassertein, zapulla, Rosen, Gerstman and Rock (2008) menemukan...(kutipan pertama)

Wassertein dkk. (2008) menemukan...(kutipan berikutnya)

6. Jikaa kutipan diambil dari sumber kedua, sedangkan sumber asli tidak dibaca, maka penulis dari sumber asli tidak perlu dituliskan tahunnya.
Contoh :
...didasarkan pada pendapat Locke (Dalam Siegel & Lane, 2008) mengenai..

Contoh Kutipan yang diambil dari skripsi orang lain.
Achmad membuat skripsi tahun 2007 dengan di dalamnya ada pendapat Hamalik dari bukunya (Hamalik) tahun 1986 tentang media pembelajaran halaman 21 (di skripsi), maka penulisan kutipannya adalah:
Hamalik (dalam Achmad, 2007: 21) mengemukakan bahwa ‘definisi media pembelajaran adalah … ‘.

Sumber Referensi:
¤ Siregar, Syofian.2003. Statistik Parametrik untuk Penelitian Kuantitatif. Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara.
¤Sebuah Buku Penelitian Tindakan Kelas ditulis oleh : -----
¤Website yang tidak disebutkan

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